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श्रीलंकेत आणीबाणीची वेळ का आली?

श्रीलंकेतील परिस्थिती –

गेल्या काही दिवसांपासून आपल्या शेजारचा देश श्रीलंका एका मोठ्या आर्थिक संकटाशी लढत आहे.

महागाईनं सर्व सीमा पार केल्यामुळं तिथल्या सर्वसामान्यांचे हाल सुरू आहेत.

श्रीलंकेत पेट्रोल-डिझेल सह दैनंदिन उपयोगी वस्तूंच्या किमती गगनाला भिडल्या आहेत.

अन्नधान्याचा तुटवडा आणि वाढलेल्या किमती यामुळे जनता त्रस्त झाली आहे.

आंदोलनांचं रूपांतर आता हिंसाचारामध्ये झालं आहे.

जाळपोळीच्या घटना समोर येत आहेत.

या गोंधळामुळे श्रीलंकेत कर्फ्यू देखील लावण्यात आला.

मात्र काही काळानंतर तो हटवण्यात आला.

महागाईमुळे ३ एप्रिलला निदर्शनं झाली आणि श्रीलंकेच्या मंत्रिमंडळाने राजीनामा दिला.

सर्वच्या सर्व २६ कॅबिनेट ( cabinet ) मंत्र्यांनी आपला राजीनामा दिला

आणि या परिस्थितीला  हिंसाचाराचं स्वरूप प्राप्त झालयं,

त्यामुळे श्रीलंकेत आणीबाणी जाहीर झाली आहे.

परंतु हे सगळे एका रात्रीत घडले आहे का?

तर नाही त्यासाठी अनेक घटक कारणीभूत आहेत.

श्रीलंकेत आणीबाणीची वेळ का आली?

श्रीलंकेसारख्या लहान देशाची अर्थव्यवस्था सगळ्यात जास्त अवलंबून आहे ती पर्यटन, चहा आणि कापड उद्योग.

कोव्हिडमुळं जगभरात लागलेल्या लॉकडाउनचा या तिनी क्षेत्रांना जबरदस्त फटका बसला.

पर्यटन क्षेत्राचा श्रीलंकेच्या अर्थव्यवस्थेत दहा टक्के वाटा आहे.

कोव्हिडमुळं यावर परिणाम होऊन पर्यटकांचा ओघ थांबला आणि टुरिझम इंडस्ट्री ( Tourism Industry ) कोसळली.

आता हे काय कमी होतं म्हणून त्यात भर पडली ती म्हणजे रशिया आणि युक्रेनमध्ये सुरू असलेल्या युद्धाची.

श्रीलंकेत येणाऱ्या पर्यटकांपैकी २५ % पर्यटक हे रशिया आणि युक्रेनमधून येतात.

श्रीलंकन चहाचा मोठा आयातदार रशिया आहे.

युद्धामूळं या चहाच्या आयातीवर देखील परिणाम झाला.

त्यातुन २०१९ साली सत्तेत आलेल्या राजपक्षे सरकारनं लोकांची क्रयशक्ती म्हणजेच खर्च करण्याची क्षमता वाढावी,

म्हणून टॅक्स कमी केला आणि यामुळंं सरकारचं उत्पन्नही कमी झालं.

यात सरकारने देशात रासायनिक खतांवर पूर्ण बंदी घालून फक्त सेंद्रिय खत वापरून शेती करण्याचा नियम केला.

परिणामी यामुळे पीक कमी झालं आणि अन्नधान्याची टंचाई निर्माण झाली.

त्यातून श्रीलंकेवर परकीय कर्ज आहे.

एप्रिल २०२१ पर्यंत श्रीलंकेवर ३५ अब्ज डॉलर परकीय कर्ज होतं.

आणि यातलं जवळपास दहा टक्के कर्ज एकट्या चीनचं होतं.

पायाभूत सुविधांच्या प्रकल्पांसाठी श्रीलंकेनं चीन कडून कर्ज घेतलं.

मात्र त्यांचे प्रकल्प फसले आणि त्या कर्जाची परतफेड श्रीलंकेला करता आली नाही.

श्रीलंकेत सत्तेत आलेल्या सर्व सरकारांच्या गैरकारभारामुळे देशात ही परिस्थिती ओढवल्याचे जाणकारांचं मत आहे.

वित्तीय तूट आणि परकीय गंगाजळी यांचं व्यवस्थापन न जमल्यानं आर्थिक अराजक माजले याचेही जाणकार म्हणतात.

चालू घडामोडींच्या अपडेट्स साठी वास्तवकट्टयाला सबस्क्राइब करा.

हेहा वाचा-

https://www.vastavkatta.com/index.php/2022/04/06/what-is-csr-act/

 

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